Rebranded Eastern Air Lines init flourished for decades after the s until acquired by Franz Lorenzo in amidst indebtment and labour dispute in the new Airline Deregulation Act market.
Tactics[ edit ] In contrast to radar- guided missilesIR-guided missiles are very difficult to find as they approach aircraft. They do not emit detectable radar, and they are generally fired from a rear visual-aspect, directly toward the engines.
In most cases, pilots have to rely on their wingmen to spot the missile's smoke trail and alert them. Since IR-guided missiles are inherently far shorter-legged in distance and altitude range than their radar-guided counterparts, good situational awareness of altitude and potential threats continues to be an effective defense.
More advanced electro-optical systems can detect missile launches automatically from the distinct thermal emissions of a missile's rocket motor. Once the presence of a "live" IR missile is indicated, flares are released by the aircraft in an attempt to decoy the missile; some systems are automatic, while others require manual jettisoning of the flares.
The aircraft would then pull away at a sharp angle from the flare and the terminal trajectory of the missile and reduce engine power in attempt to cool the thermal signature.
Optimally, the missile's seeker head is then confused by this change in temperature and flurry of new signatures, and therefore follows the flare s rather than the aircraft. The most modern IR-guided missiles have sophisticated on-board electronics that help discriminate between flares and targets, reducing the effectiveness of countermeasures.
Since insurgents and terrorists are increasingly targeting helicopters with missiles, because helicopters are slower-moving, there is an increasing trend to equip military helicopters with flare countermeasures.
Indeed almost all of the UK's helicopters, whether they are transport or attack models, are equipped with flare dispenser or missile approach warning systems.
Similarly, the US armed forces in particular the US army have adopted defensive technology on their helicopters. These flares, known as pyrophoric flares, are made of special materials that ignite when they come in contact with the air.
This is a safety and convenience factor, since attempting to ignite a flare inside the fuselage and then deploying it is risky. However pyrotechnic flares such as the MJU also exist, and offer their own safety benefit; requiring an external ignition method, an accidental leak or puncture in the storage compartment would not result in a catastrophic fire on board the aircraft as with a pyrophoric flare.
Deployment[ edit ] Flares are most commonly gravity-fed from a dispenser inside the aircraft's fuselage. These dispensers can be programmed by the pilot or ground crew to dispense flares in short intervals, one at a time, long intervals, or in clusters. Most currently used flares are of the pyrophoric variety, and thus the dispensers do not have to ignite and deploy the flare at the same time.
With pyrotechnic flares, a lanyard automatically pulls off a friction cap covering the exposed end of the flare as it falls from the dispenser. A friction surface inside the cap rubs against the exposed end of the flare similar to a match-head and striking surface and ignites the flare.
Decoying[ edit ] Flares burn at thousands of degrees, which is much hotter than the exhaust of a jet engine. IR missiles seek out the hotter flame, believing it to be an aircraft in afterburner or the beginning of the engine's exhaust source.
As the more modern infrared seekers tend to have spectral sensitivity tailored to more closely match the emissions of airplanes and reject other sources the so-called CCM, or counter-countermeasuresthe modernized decoy flares have their emission spectrum optimized to also match the radiation of the airplane mainly its engines and engine exhaust.
In addition to spectral discrimination, the CCMs can include trajectory discrimination and detection of size of the radiation source. The newest generation of the FIM Stinger uses a dual IR and UV seeker head, which allows for a redundant tracking solution, effectively negating the impact of modern decoy flares according to the U.
While research and development in flare technology has produced an IR signature on the same wavelength as hot engine exhaust, modern flares still produce a notably and immutably different UV signature than an aircraft engine burning kerosene jet-fuel.
For the infrared generating charge, two approaches are possible: As stored, chemical-energy-source IR-decoy flares contain pyrotechnic compositions, liquid or solid pyrophoric substances, or liquid or solid highly flammable substances.
There is a wide variety of calibres and shapes available for aerial decoy flares. Due to volume storage restrictions on board platforms, many aircraft of American origin use square decoy flare cartridges.
Square calibres and typical decoy flares: PPI 26 IW Pyrotechnic flares[ edit ] Pyrotechnic flares use a slow-burning fuel-oxidizer mixture that generates intense heat. Thermite -like mixtures, e.
To adjust the emission characteristics to match closer the spectrum of jet engines, charges on the base of double base propellants. These compositions can avoid the metal content and achieve cleaner burning without the prominent smoke trail.ANSWER: Airworthiness Directives (AD) are issued when the FAA finds that an unsafe condition exists in a product (aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance.) These AD's notify aircraft owners and operators of potential unsafe conditions and require special inspections, repairs, or alterations to correct the unsafe condition.
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