Understanding Cultural Issues in Death Information for Schools and Crisis Response Teams Schools and crisis response workers in many parts of the country will be helping children cope with the concept of death as a result of the war and concern about terrorism. Some children are suffering a personal loss. Others will have a heightened fear of death either because they are worried about further attacks or they have family members in the military, active reserves, or public safety roles.
Importantly, the form that behaviors take may appear identical across cultures. Yet, given that cultures vary in their customs and beliefs, the same behavior may be interpreted differently across cultures.
Moreover, the means by which the given behavior is encouraged or discouraged may be culturally determined and defined.
The etic perspective may cause researchers to operationally define and thus assess constructs in the same ways with the same methods and measures across cultures.
Thus, the etic approach may result in overlooking culturally-specific definitions of given constructs. For example, researchers may assume that social competence, as a construct, is universally relevant and that it can be measured by assessments created in, for example, North American laboratories.
This etic assumption may be entirely correct; however one would clearly need to Confucian parenting test this assumption. It is likely that, to some extent, the study of social competence would require an emic belief requiring within-culture conceptualization and measurement.
Some aspects of competence may be universally held and others not. Research Context In addition to culture, other significant constructs Confucian parenting to be addressed.
For example, broadly, researchers typically discuss two cultural phenomena: Western cultures are often described as those for whom members value assertiveness, expressiveness and competitiveness; whereas Eastern and Southern cultures are often described as those for whom members value group harmony and cooperation.
More recently, there has been agreement that most countries are a fine mix of both of these constructs, with some being relatively more individualistic and others relatively more collectivistic. Significantly, in the research area reviewed herein, there is relatively little known of Southern cultures Confucian parenting differences between Northern and Southern cultures ; thus, the review is focused mainly on comparisons between Western and Eastern cultures.
How do peers react to children and adolescents who fail to conform to cultural norms of social competence? How do individual characteristics, social interactions and relationships, groups and culture interact to influence social development? Generally defined, temperament is the biological basis of personality.
Researchers suggest that this difference results from the collectivist ideologies prevalent in East Asian cultures. In support of this contention, researchers have reported that Chinese mothers of preschoolers are more likely than European American mothers to believe that their preschool children should share and help other children for social conventional reasons e.
Whereas competition can damage group harmony, cooperation is necessary in relationship maintenance. However, competition and cooperation appear to co-exist regardless of culture.
For example, in East Asian nations, children are more cooperative with friends and family, but more competitive in educational contexts. For example, third-generation Mexican Americans are more competitive than their second-generation counterparts.
Physical, verbal and relational aggression have been identified as distinct entities in many cultures and countries. There is increasing evidence that fearful, wary, inhibited behavior among toddlers predicts early childhood social reticence and anxiety.
Friendships Friendship is often referred to as a close, mutual and voluntary dyadic relationship.
However, the notion that friendship is a voluntary, freely-chosen relationship may not be the case in all cultures. For example, children in traditional Yucatec Mayan communities spend most of their time with their immediate and extended family.
Little is known, however, about the developmental course of the functions of friendship across cultures. Moreover, the functions and nature of friendship appear to vary across cultures.
In cultures within which friendships are considered one of very few relationships guaranteeing societal success, both intimacy and exclusivity should be regarded as the most important aspects of a friendship.
Researchers have reported that negotiation is often used to resolve conflict among Western children; whereas disengagement appears to be favored among Eastern cultures. Even children of preschool age are more likely to choose play partners who are similar to them in age, sex, ethnicity and behavior.
Peer acceptance and rejection Young, socially-accepted children are typically skilled at initiating and maintaining positive relationships, and are viewed by peers and teachers as cooperative, sociable and sensitive. These findings cut across cultures: Both aggressiveness and withdrawal are associated with rejection, whereas prosocial behavior is linked with acceptance.
Research Gaps As aforementioned, a salient problem in cross-cultural work is the belief that an etic approach is superior to an emic approach.
To demonstrate the fallacy of this argument, we refer to a social competence construct specific to China: Ren is a construct that encourages group harmony. When young Chinese children use ren in response to peer animosity, they disengage from, rather than do battle with, their peers.
Instead, the goal of ren is to elicit restraint and tolerance from the peers with whom they are interacting. Western researchers may well overlook the social convention of ren and thus, may inaccurately construe and assess the construct of social competence in Chinese culture.
Therefore, it would behoove researchers to consider their cultures of interest, and to collaborate with members of those cultures to conceptualize and operationally define social competence. Along the way, investigators should consider how the given construct may be defined at different developmental periods and how it evolves both in the short and long term.Culture shapes experiences and influences children’s development.
This topic aims to show how child development and culture are connected, how these influences manifest themselves, and the effects of cultural differences on children of immigrant families.
Keywords: Confucianism, Chinese family, education, parental involvement Introduction For nearly 2, years, Confucianism has shaped the social, ethical and political aspect of Chinese cultures.
Confucianism, developed by the greatest Chinese philosopher, Confucius, is a philosophy which focuses on the conduct and practices of people in daily life. Editor’s note: This article was written through a collaboration between C.
Daniel Motley and the AoM Team. Matthew Arnold, a Victorian poet, once claimed, “The crown of literature is poetry,” and if our neglect of poetry is any indication, the crown is rusting. The author and her son. Yan Mei. There is a lot to learn from looking at the cultural differences between Chinese and American parenting styles.
Throughout history, the Confucian style of parenting has gained the attention of many parents in Asian countries. This authoritative style of parenting began in the Asian country of China. The whole idea of Confucian parenting is based on Confucianism, which is a culture based on proverbs and teachings of their leader, Confucius.
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