They carry more weight and authority, and are likely to be more convincing. Academic sources are Authoritative: A source written by a recognised expert in a field is more likely to be trustworthy although expertise should never be accepted blindly - see evaluating source quality for more. Before publication in an academic journal, for example, an article is checked by a panel of referees.
The introduction opening paragraph basically accomplishes two goals: Open with a series of questions about the topic. Present startling or unusual facts or figures. Define an important, subject related term.
Quote a well known person or literary work. Body Developmental paragraphs body paragraphs are the heart of an essay. They must clearly and logically support the thesis. They must be arranged in the best possible way, e.
The paragraphs should flow smoothly from one to the next, e. In addition, minor supporting ideas are linked together within the paragraphs in a smooth manner.
Conclusion The conclusion is the summary paragraph. It should accomplish the following: Development General-to-specific sequence The topic sentence should be the first sentence in a paragraph. The topic sentence is a general statement introducing the paragraph and is followed by specific details that expand, explain, or illustrate the topic sentence.
Unity All the sentences should relate to one topic. Completeness Supporting ideas should be developed enough to cover the topic. Coherence Coherence equals connection and consistency. Body paragraphs should flow smoothly from one to the next, e.
Within a paragraph, there are three major ways to develop coherence through related sentences: Repetition of important words and pronouns - Repetition of key words helps the reader follow from sentence to sentence as important terms are defined and the relationship between them is explained. Synonyms and substitutions - Synonyms are two or more words that have nearly the same thing.
Substitution is a word that describes the subject. Transitional expressions - Transitional expressions are words and phrases that point out the exact relationship between one idea and another, one sentence and another, e.
Just as the sentences within a paragraph should flow smoothly, so the paragraphs within an essay should be clearly linked one to the next. The first sentence of each new paragraph is linked to the thesis statement or to the paragraph before.
The following are four ways to link paragraphs: Repetition of key words or ideas from the thesis statement 2. Reference to words or ideas from the preceding paragraph 3. Use of transitional expressions 4. Use of transitional sentences A closer look at development Comparison and Contrast There are two ways to present similarities and differences between two things being compared or contrasted.
Point 1 Point 2 Then all B: Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 This pattern is good for short compositions. The reader can easily remember what was said about A by the time he or she gets around to B. Point-by-point topic by topic This method moves back and forth between A and B, presenting one point about A and then going to the parallel point about B.
Then, it moves to the next point and does the same. By going back and forth, the writer makes it easier for the reader to keep the contrasts or comparisons in mind. Extended Definition There are five basic methods to expand a definition: Comparing it to something else 2.
Telling what it is not 3. Describing it in detail 4.
Classifying it by explaining the different kinds 5. Using exemplification Process There are two kinds of process essays: The how-to essay gives readers directions on how they can do something, e.Writing Spaces' texts are made available under Creative Commons licenses, so feel free to download an individual chapter or full volume and host it on your personal website or your class website.
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Sourced: academic writing is careful to credit the origins of information and ideas, usually by means of a reference list or bibliography.
Peer-reviewed: other academics have read the source and checked it for accuracy. These sources can include books, academic journal articles, and published expert reports.
Whatever the exact form, academic sources all have . Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use.
Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free. Sourcework: Academic Writing from Sources / Edition 2 The second edition of Sourcework, designed to help students make use of outside sources, has been updated and enhanced to better guide writers through the challenges of their first academic research barnweddingvt.com: $